Click here for extensive print bibliography lists organized within the following topics: How To Become a Nun | The Vinaya | Tibetan Nuns | Ordination Issue | General Topics

Dignity & Discipline
Reviving Full Ordination
for Buddhist Nuns
Thea Mohr & Ven. Jampa Tsedroen, Editors
(Wisdom Publications 2010)

When the Buddha established his community over twenty-five centuries ago, he did so upon a foundation of radical equality among women and men. And indeed, the earliest Buddhist scriptures celebrate the teachings and inspiring influence of these path-blazing female renunciants. Nonetheless, through much of the Buddhist world, the order of nuns has disappeared or was never transmitted at all. Dignity and Discipline represents a watershed moment in Buddhist history, as the Dalai Lama together with scholars and monastics from around the world, present powerful cases, grounded in both scripture and a profound appeal to human dignity, that the order of Buddhist nuns can and should be fully restored. >more and to order

Papers presented during the Congress, but not included in "Dignity and Discipline" as well as other essays related to the congress topic can be viewed and/or downloaded as follows:
>Click here for links to Print Publications
Click here for links to Online Publications

>Click here for German Translation of Dignity and Discipline: Jampa Tsedroen and Thea Mohr: Mit Würde und Beharrlichkeit. Die Erneuerung buddhistischer Nonnenorden. Berlin: edition steinrich 2011.


NEW: Buddhist Nuns’ Ordination in the Mūlasarvāstivāda Vinaya Tradition: Two Possible Approaches by Bhikṣuṇī Jampa Tsedroen (Academy of World Religions and Numata Center for Buddhist Studies, University of Hamburg)

This article examines the possibilities of reviving the Mūlasarvāstivāda lineage of fully ordained nuns (bhikṣuṇī). It explores two ways to generate a “flawless and perfect” Mūlasarvāstivāda bhikṣuṇī vow, either by Mūlasarvāstivāda monks alone or by Mūlasarvāstivāda monks with Dharmaguptaka nuns (“ecumenical” ordination). The first approach is based on a Vinaya passage which traditionally is taken as the Word of the Buddha, but which, from a historical-critical point of view, is dubious. The second approach is not explicitly represented in the Vinaya but involves “re-reading” or “re-thinking” it with a critical-constructive attitude (“theological” approach). Each approach is based on my latest findings from studying the Tibetan translation of the Bhikṣuṇyupasaṃpadājñāpti and related commentaries.
download PDF (641 KB)
NEW: Gelongma Reports by Dr. Alex Berzin
Summary Reports of the 2007 International Congress on the Women's Role in the Sangha by Dr. Alex Berzin:
English version
Tibetan version
German version
Ven. Thupten Chodron Resources on Monastic Life
For extensive online, print, and audio resources on ordination, including information for those considering monastic ordination, living as a Buddhist nun, Western Buddhist monastics, and related resources, visit the Monastic Life Section of Ven. Chodron's website by clicking here.

Alliance for Bhikkhunis
Founded in 2007, the Alliance for Bhikkhunis is a US-based 501 (c)(3) non-profit organization committed to supporting fully ordained Theravada Buddhist women (bhikkhunis) with a focus to support and protect the development of the international Bhikkhuni Sangha through education, sustainable economic empowerment, provisioning of health care, and organizing and mobilizing for a gender-balanced approach to Theravada monasticism. Visit their website at

International Congress on Buddhist Women's Role in the Sangha
The “1st International Congress on Buddhist Women’s Role in the Sangha: Bhikshuni Vinaya and Ordination Lineages” was held at the University of Hamburg from July 18-20, 2007, in cooperation with the University’s Asia-Africa Institute. For extensive resources, visit their website at: >

Sakyadhita: The International Association of Buddhist Women. Visit their website at

The Tibetan Women's Association: Organization doing leadership training workshops fro Tibetan Buddhist nuns in India. Visit their website at:

The Buddhist Scholars Information Network (H-Buddhism) serves as a medium for the exchange of information regarding academic resources, new research projects, scholarly publications, university job listings, and so forth, for specialists in Buddhist Studies who are currently affiliated with academic institutions. Visit their website at

The Tibetan Nuns Project provides facilities and programs to educate, empower, and improve the status of ordained Tibetan women. The Project is dedicated to training nuns to take leadership and service roles within their communities and to improving the level and status of ordained Buddhist women. Visit their website at

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